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1. Arzarello M1, e.a. Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy), Naturwissenschaften. 2007 Feb;94(2):107-12.The lithic industry of Pirro Nord represents the oldest occurrence of the genus Homo in Europe as it is attributable to a chronological interval between 1.3 en 1.7 Ma. This supports the hypothesis that the genus Homo, with Oldowaian technology, extended its range in Europe, probably from western Asia, during the first half of the Early Pleistocene. (Terug)
2. Foto overgenomen van lucyonline. Bron UCM: Site van Atapuerca. (Terug)
3. Adrien Rieux et al., Mol Biol Evol (2014) doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu222, Improved calibration of the human mitochondrial clock using ancient genomes; A. We estimated a split time between Homo neanderthalensis en Homo sapiens mtDNAs of 389 Kya [295-498 95% HPD]. This is consistent with the 407 Kya [315-506 95% HPD] estimates of Endicott et al. (2010); en B. Our estimate of 143 Kya [112-180 95% HPD] for the TMRCA of all modern human mtDNA is slightly younger but highly consistent with the 157 Kya [120-197 95% HPD] value obtained by Fu et al. (2013b). (Terug)
4. Ann Gibbons, Science 2015; foto uit Ancient Origins. sept. 2015. (Terug)
5 Bertila Galván et al., Early Neandertal disappearance in Iberia, Journal of Human Evolution, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol., 2014.06.002. (Terug)
6. Tom Higham et al., The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance, Nature 512, 306 309 (21 August 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13621; en Joseph K. Pickrell, David Reich, Sankararaman et al., 2012, Green et al., 2010, Prüfer et al.,2014, Towards a new history en geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA in BioRxiv beta, March 21, 2014. (Terug)
7. Cooper en Stringer, 2013; Meyer et al., 2012; Prüfer et al., 2014, Reich et al., 2010, 2011. (Terug)
8. The earliest unequivocally modern Humans in southern China, Wu Liu, Mark Jan Sier e.a., nature, 2015. (Terug)
9. Jean Manco, Ancestral Journeys. (Terug)
11. Andaine Seguin-Orlando, e.a. Genomic structure in Europeans dating back at least 36,200 years. Science 346, 1113 (2014) (Terug)
12. Cooper and Stringer, 2013; Meyer et al., 2012; Prüfer et al., 2014, Reich et al., 2010, 2011. (Terug)
13. Eske Willerslev, University of Copenhagen, May 2016. (Terug)
14. Philip R. Nigst et al. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment, 2014, 28 sept. PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1412201111. (Terug)
15. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe, Qiaomei Fu et alii. Nature, 2 May 2016. (Terug)
15a. Posth et al., Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe, Current Biology (2016), (Terug)
16. Craniometric analysis of European Upper Palaeolithic en Mesolithic samples supports discontinuity at the Last Glacial Maximum, Ciaraán Brewster,e al, Nature Communications 5, published 10 June 2014. (Terug)
17. Museum De Koperen Knop [The Copper Knob Museum], Hardinxveld-Giessendam, Holland. (Terug)
18. Cradle of Civilization, A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development, (Back)
19. Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent, Farnaz Broushaki, Science 14 Jul 2016: DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7943. (Back)
20. The genetic structure of the world's first farmers, Iosif Lazaridis et alii, BioRxiv, June 16, 2016. (Back)
21. Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European, Iñigo Olalde et al. Nature (2014) doi:10.1038/nature12960.; Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent, Farnaz Broushaki, Science 14 Jul 2016: DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7943. (Back)
22. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe,Christian Meyer, edited by Melinda A. Zeder, National Museum of Natural History, Santa Fe, March 3, 2015. (Back)
23. Anthropology, Genetics & Human Biodiversity Blog. (Back)
24. Fanny Chenal, et alii, A farewell to arms: a deposit of human limbs and bodies at Bergheim, France, c. 4000 BC,Antiquity, a revieuw of World archaelogy. (Terug)
25. Dusan Boric, The End of the Vinca World: Modelling the Neolithicto Copper Age Transition and the Notion of Archaeological Culture,, sept. 2015. (Back)
26. Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, Wolfgang Haak, February 10, 2015, BioRxiv. (Back)
27. Suetonius,De vitis Caesarum, 121 NC. (Terug)
28. Gaius Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico, VI. (Terug)
29. Lucius Cassius Dio, Ρωμαικη 'Ιστορια Romeinse Geschiedenis, AD. 192. (Terug)
31. Collectie Gallo-Romeins Museum Kielenstraat 15 3700 Tongeren, België. (Terug)
32. Bewerkte Afbeelding van Wikimedia Merovingian dynasty. (Terug)