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1. Arzarello M1, e.a. Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy), Naturwissenschaften. 2007 Feb;94(2):107-12.The lithic industry of Pirro Nord represents the oldest occurrence of the genus Homo in Europe as it is attributable to a chronological interval between 1.3 en 1.7 Ma. This supports the hypothesis that the genus Homo, with Oldowaian technology, extended its range in Europe, probably from western Asia, during the first half of the Early Pleistocene. (Terug)
2. Picture from lucyonline. Bron UCM: Site of Atapuerca. (Terug)
3. Adrien Rieux et al., Mol Biol Evol (2014) doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu222, Improved calibration of the human mitochondrial clock using ancient genomes; A. We estimated a split time between Homo neanderthalensis en Homo sapiens mtDNAs of 389 Kya [295-498 95% HPD]. This is consistent with the 407 Kya [315-506 95% HPD] estimates of Endicott et al. (2010); en B. Our estimate of 143 Kya [112-180 95% HPD] for the TMRCA of all modern human mtDNA is slightly younger but highly consistent with the 157 Kya [120-197 95% HPD] value obtained by Fu et al. (2013b). (Terug)
4. Ann Gibbons, Science 2015; foto uit Ancient Origins. sept. 2015. (Terug)
5. Bertila Galván et al., Early Neandertal disappearance in Iberia, Journal of Human Evolution, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol., 2014.06.002. (Terug)
6. F.G. Fedele, B. Giaccio and I. Hajdas Timescales and Cultural Process at 40,000 BP in the Light of the Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption, Western Eurasia in Journal of Human Evolution 55 (2008), 734-57; A. Costa et alii, Quantifying Volcanic Ash Dispersal and Impact of the Campanias Ignimbrite Super-Eruption in Geophysical Research Letters 39 (2012), L10310. (Terug)
7. S. Sankararaman et alii, The date of interbreeding Between Neanderthals and Modern Humans, in PloS Genetics 8 (2012): 1002947 cited in David Reich, Who we are and How we got here - Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past, New York 2018, pag 29, 39. (Terug)
8. Tom Higham et al., The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance, Nature 512, 306 309 (21 August 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13621; en Joseph K. Pickrell, David Reich, Sankararaman et al., 2012, Green et al., 2010, Prüfer et al.,2014, Towards a new history en geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA in BioRxiv beta, March 21, 2014. (Terug)
9. B. Vernot and J,.M. Akey, Resurrecting surviving Neandertal lineages from Modern Human Genomes in Science 343 (2014), 1017-21. (Terug)
10. Cooper en Stringer, 2013; Meyer et al., 2012; Prüfer et al., 2014, Reich et al., 2010, 2011. (Terug)
21. Jean-Jacques Hublin, et alii New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens, Nature 8 June 2017. (Terug)
22. The earliest unequivocally modern Humans in southern China, Wu Liu, Mark Jan Sier e.a., nature, 2015. (Terug)
23. S. Sankararaman et alii, The date of interbreeding Between Neanderthals and Modern Humans, in PloS Genetics 8 (2012): 1002947; P. Moorjani et alii A GeneticMethod for Dating Ancient GenomesProvides a Direct Estimate of Human Generation Intervan in the last 45,000 years in Proceeding of the National Academy Of Sciences of the USA 113 (2016) 5652-7. cited in David Reich Who we are and How we got here - Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past, New York 2018, pag 57, 58. (Terug)
24. Iosif Lazaridis et alii, The genetic structure of the world's first farmers, BioRxiv, June 16, 2016; and Farnaz Broushaki, Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent, F, Science 14 Jul 2016: DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7943.. (Terug)
25. On the origin of modern humans: Asian perspectives, Christopher J. Bae, Katerina Douka, Michael D. Petragli. Science, 8 dec. 2017. (Terug)
26. Philip R. Nigst et al. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment, 2014, 28 sept. PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1412201111. (Terug)
27. Qiaomei Fu, Heng Li, Svante Pääbo, Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia, Nature, 514, pag. 445-449, Oct. 2014), cit. in Genetiker, 14 nov. 2014. (Terug)
27a. Qiaomei Fu, Cosimo Posth, David Reich et alii, The genetic history of Ice Age Europe, Nature, 534, pag. 200-205, (2016). (Terug)
28. Andaine Seguin-Orlando, e.a. Genomic structure in Europeans dating Terug at least 36,200 years. Science 346, 1113 (2014) (Terug)
29. Cooper and Stringer, 2013; Meyer et al., 2012; Prüfer et al., 2014, Reich et al., 2010, 2011. (Terug)
30. Qiaomei Fu, David Reich & Svante Pääbo et alii, An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor, Nature, 524, pag. (13 August 2015). (Terug)
41. F.G. Fedele, B. Giaccio and I. Hajdas Timescales and Cultural Process at 40,000 BP in the Light of the Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption, Western Eurasia in Journal of Human Evolution 55 (2008), 734-57; A. Costa et alii, Quantifying Volcanic Ash Dispersal and Impact of the Campanias Ignimbrite Super-Eruption in Geophysical Research Letters 39 (2012), L10310. (Terug)
42. Qiaomei Fu, Cosimo Posth, David Reich et alii, The genetic history of Ice Age Europe, Nature, 534, pag. 200-205, (2016) Geneticer, Goyet Q116-1, an Aurignacian sample from Goyet, Belgium dated to 35,160 to 34,430 BP, the calls show that Goyet Q116-1 belonged to Y haplogroup C1a2-Z38842(xV86), https://genetiker.wordpress.com/y-snp-calls-for-goyet-q116-1/. (Terug)
43. Qiaomei Fu, David Reich & Svante Pääbo, An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor, Nature, 524, pag. 216-219 (2015); Martin Sikora1, et alii, Ancient genomes show social and reproductive behavior of early Upper Paleolithic foragers, Science, 05 Oct 2017. (Terug)
43a. Martin Sikora et alii, Ancient genomes show social and reproductive behavior of early Upper Paleolithic foragers, Science, eaao1807, DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1807, 5 okt. 2017. (Terug)
44. C.-J. Kind et alii, The smile of the Lion Man: Recent Excavations in Stadel Cave (Baden- Würtemberg, South-Western Germany) and the Restoration ofthe famous Upper Palaeolitic Figurine, Quartär 61 (2014): 129-145. (Terug)
45. David Reich, Who we are and How we got here - Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past, New York 2018, pag 91. (Terug)
46. Posth et al., Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe, Current Biology (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.01.037. (Terug)
47. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe, Qiaomei Fu et alii. Nature, 2 May 2016. (Terug)
48. Craniometric analysis of European Upper Palaeolithic en Mesolithic samples supports discontinuity at the Last Glacial Maximum, Ciaraán Brewster,e al, Nature Communications 5, published 10 June 2014. (Terug)
49. Museum De Koperen Knop [The Copper Knob Museum], Hardinxveld-Giessendam, Holland. (Terug)
50. Cradle of Civilization, A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development, aratta.wordpress.com. (Terug)
61. Iñigo Olalde et al., Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European, Nature (2014) doi:10.1038/nature12960.; Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent, Farnaz Broushaki, Science 14 Jul 2016: DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7943. (Terug)
62. Farnaz Broushaki, Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent, Science 14 Jul 2016: DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7943. (Terug)
63. Iosif Lazaridis et alii, The genetic structure of the world's first farmers, BioRxiv, June 16, 2016. (Terug)
64. The English DNA indicates a mixed maritime-continental origin. The highest shared autosomal IBD between a Neolithic farmer from Ireland is with modern southern and eastern Iberians and Sardinians, Cassidi, 2016. See also: Selina Brace et alii. Population Replacement in Early Neolithic Britain, bioRxiv, 2018. (Terug)
65. Limburg. Een geschiedenis, deel 1_tot 1500, Paul Timmermnas et alii, KLGOG. Maastricht 2015. Bulletin du Cercle archéologique Hesbaye-Condroz, Tome XXX, 2010, Le Néolitique ancien de Belgique. (Terug)
66. A whole mitochondria analysis of the Tyrolean Iceman's leather provides insights into the animal sources of Copper Age clothing, Niall J. O'Sullivan, Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, EURAC research, 39100 Bolzano, Italy, School of Archaeology and Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. (Terug)
67. Iñigo Olalde et alii, The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwest Europe, BioRxiv, mei 2017. Selina Brace et alii. Population Replacement in Early Neolithic Britain, bioRxiv, 2018. (Terug)
67a. J.N. Lanting & J.N. van der Plicht,De 14C Chronologie Neolithicum, Palaeohistoria 41/42, 1999/2000. (Terug)
67b. Bakels, 1982. (Terug)
68. Rössen keramik, Landesmuseum Natur und Mensch Oldenburg, Niedersachsenm, Dld. (Terug)
69. Barry Cunliffe, Britain begins, 2013. (Terug)
70. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe,Christian Meyer, edited by Melinda A. Zeder, National Museum of Natural History, Santa Fe, March 3, 2015. (Terug)
81. Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Guido Brandt, Victoria Keerl, et al. Tracing the genetic origin of Europe's first farmers reveals insights into their social organization, bioRxiv first posted online September 3, 2014. (Terug)
82. I. Lazaridis, et alii, Genome-wide data on 34 ancient Anatolians identifies the founding population of the European Neolithic, ASHG, october 2015, Baltimore, USA.. The show an Fst to the first farmers of Europe as well as to those of Germany 0.004 ± 0.0004 as those of Spain 0.014 ± 0.0009. (Fst, fixatie index, is een measure for geneticdifference in and between populations, this ranges from 0 no difference to 1 complete difference. (Terug)
83. Alexander Herbig of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 2017. (Terug)
84. Fanny Chenal, et alii, A farewell to arms: a deposit of human limbs and bodies at Bergheim, France, c. 4000 BC,Antiquity, a revieuw of World archaelogy. (Terug)
85. Dusan Boric, The End of the Vinca World: Modelling the Neolithicto Copper Age Transition and the Notion of Archaeological Culture, Academia.edu, sept. 2015. (Terug)
86. Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, Wolfgang Haak, February 10, 2015, BioRxiv. (Terug)
87. Leendert P. Louwe Kooijmans, Onze vroegste voorouders, De geschiedenis van Nederland in de steentijd, van het begin tot 3000 vC, Amsterdam, 2017. (Terug)
88. Rijksmuseum voor Oudheden in Leiden, find dating from around 2300 years before Christ. (Terug)
89. Door UserDieKraft - own work; map adapted from a Wikimedia Commons original (Template europe map.png by wiki-de-user San Jose); data taken from RJ Harrison, The Beaker Folk. Copper Age archaeology in Western Europe. Ancient Peoples and Places 97, London 1980. (Terug)
90. David Reich, Who we are and How we got here - Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past, New York 2018, pag 109-117. (Terug)
111. Suetonius,De vitis Caesarum, 121 NC. (Terug)
112. Gaius Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico, VI. (Terug)
113 Lucius Cassius Dio, Ρωμαικη 'Ιστορια Romeinse Geschiedenis, AD. 192. (Terug)
114 Collectie Gallo-Romeins Museum Kielenstraat 15 3700 Tongeren, België. (Terug)
115. Source: Jona Lendering oct. 2017. (Terug)
116. Bewerkte Afbeelding van Wikimedia Merovingian dynasty. (Terug)
117. Gold coin, on the front is a stylized head turned to the right and the text TRIECTVFIT and on the other side is a cross on a globe with the text MARICVSMO, diameter 14 mm, weighing 1,314 grams, gold content 89 percent. Domaricus was Monetarius in Maastricht in the first half of the sevent century. (Terug)
118. Merovingers in een villa 2 – Romeinse villa en Merovingisch grafveld Borgharen, 2012, R.C.G.M. Lauwerier et alii. Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur em Wetenschap. (Terug)


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